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Complications of FGC

Complications of FGC and their management Physical complicationsThe traditional practitioners interviewed played down complications associated with the practice. Rather than associating them with the cutting procedure or person doing the cutting they said, [If] some girls get problems due to circumcision, it is God's case Female genital cutting: confronting cultural challenges & health complications across the lifespan Review prevalence and consequences of FGC within immi-grant communities to the developed world, per-haps because practice is illegal in many immigrant-receiving communities. The goal of this review is t In numerous international and regional declarations, FGC is acknowledged to be a violation of human rights and bodily integrity, as the practice has no therapeutic benefits, is known to cause.. Obstetric fistulas, a potential complication of FGC, result from necrosis of urogenital structures when compressed between the fetal head and the mother's pelvis during obstructed labor. Urinary incontinence results from sloughing of the posterior wall of the bladder or urethra and fecal incontinence from pressure necrosis of the posterior. More than 100 million girls and women have undergone female genital cutting (FGC, also known as female circumcision), and more than 3 million female infants and children are at risk for this procedure annually. 1 - 3 FGC is seen as a rite of passage for young girls in some communities and is most often performed between the ages of 4.

OPTIONS: Strategies for the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of FGC and its complications. OUTCOMES: The short- and long-term consequences of FGC. INTENDED USERS: Health care providers delivering obstetrical and gynaecological care Chronic complications. Today I have been writing about chronical - or long term - complications of FGM type III. There are few relevant studies made on the long term complications (that we can find) and most studies or books discussing medical aspects focus on either the acute complications, or most commonly the complications that are. Complications vary according to the type of procedure conducted and the conditions under which FGC is performed (e.g., hygienic conditions, instruments used, experience of the practitioner). 3, 18 Table 4 provides a synopsis of the immediate and long-term health complications of FGM from types I, II, and III as compiled by WHO. 3 Health care providers in receiving countries tend to address the long-term complications of FGC, especially those related to types II and III. 1 FGC has many serious implications for the health of girls and women. It often causes pain, bleeding, infection, and dysuria as immediate consequences of the procedure. It also causes chronic pain, chronic infections, poor quality of sexual life, birth complications, and psychological problems as long-term effects [ 1, 3, 4 ] FGM can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, as well as complications in childbirth and increased risk of newborn deaths. More than 200 million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated (1)

Doctors' wish list for FGC

FGC should be more widely accepted as an unethical procedure or practice due to physical and psychological damages and complications despite some cultures show more content Throughout most of the world, it is deemed to be unethical and illegal to perform or assist in the procedure Long-term complications include chronic pelvic infection, formation of cysts, vaginal obstruction and infertility. Some of the greatest health problems associated with FGC and faced by most women arise during pregnancy and when giving birth. In some cases, complications from FGC can result in death

The FGC-related complications encountered by CNMs included problems with urination, urinary tract infections (UTIs), painful menstruation, and obstructed labor caused by infibulation Reviews various complications associated with the practice of FGM/C. Sections 3-5: Educates health care providers in identifying complications associated with FGM/C, and in managing girls and women who present with such complications. Section 6: Prepares midwives and others caring for women during pregnancy, labour, delivery an An ideation model of behaviour change guided the analyses of the impact of the programme on personal advocacy for FGC, perceived self-efficacy to refuse pressure to perform FGC, perceived social support for FGC discontinuation, perceived benefits of FGC, perceived health complications of FGC and intention not to perform FGC on daughters Of these 1204 with FGC, 223 had obstetric complications during childbirth, representing a frequency of 17.22%. The majority of FGM is practiced during childhood and adolescence that is 67.35 and 29.59% . Age: The average age of the patients was 21.70 years with extremes of 15 and 37 years. Just over half, 51.02%, of the women were between 15. Common late complications from FGC can beorganized by the type of symptom, with mostfalling into categories of urinary complications,scarring, pain, infection, infertility, and sexualdysfunction (Table 1)

(PDF) FGMC Management of complications monica wanjiru

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2001) estimates that 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide have been subjected to female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female circumcision (FC) and female genital mutilation (FGM). Even with the slow decline in the number of procedures, it is estimated that two million girls remain at risk of experiencing FGC Complications. FGC Types I-III can lead to both short‐ and long‐term complications. 7 Direct procedure‐related complications include: hemorrhage (usually from laceration of the internal pudendal artery or the clitoral artery); infection and septic shock (from the use of shared, non‐sterile equipment); and urethral injury, urinary.

There are no known medical benefits to FGC, and it can be potentially dangerous for the health and psychological well-being of women and girls who are subjected to the practice resulting in short- and long-term complications FGC complications for fear of legal repercussions (Shell-Duncan, 2001). Furthermore, as a result of a rise in infection and health-related complications, Indonesia overturned the 2006 ban on FGC, as it force

Female Genital Cutting: Confronting Cultural Challenges

  1. One medical complication is heavy pains because you have an accession of the genitalia, says Jallabah. You have nerves endings and tissues that cause strong pains when cut. According to Dr. Jallabah, bleeding is another complication of FGC
  2. Female genital cutting (FGC) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or injury to the female genital organs, for cultural or nontherapeutic.
  3. Impacts of FGC. A girl who has undergone female genital cutting (FGC) can often face consequences that are dangerous and distressing. Many girls and women will experience lifelong negative impacts. The harmful effects can be physical, psychological and economic, often leading to difficulties throughout her childhood, adolescence and adult life
  4. as FGC, so that their capacity for freely given consent is negated or compromised. All types of FGC present the risk of immediate and often longer-term health complications, including psychological pain-related effects. The more immediate medical complications include excessive bleeding, which may necessitate emergency medical care that i

Female Genital Cutting: Cultural Challenges and Complication

  1. providers, and in some cases may result in serious complications or the loss of life. Therefore, a comprehensive package of interventions, skills support, and training materials on health impacts associated with FGM/C would be most useful to health practitioners. Such materials woul
  2. Traditional values attached to Female Genital Cutting (FGC) amongst the Pokot of West Pokot, Kenya Benadette C. Kaprom P. O. Box 6823 - 30100, ELDORE, Kenya Abstract Immediate complications can include severe pain, shock, haemorrhage (bleeding), tetanu
  3. Female genital cutting. Female circumcision, or cutting, is an age-old tradition. Depending on the tradition, a girl or woman may have part or all of her external genitals removed. It's a 5.000-year-old tradition whereby a young girl or woman has parts of her genitals cut. FGC is especially practiced in Northern and Eastern Africa
  4. Introduction . Female genital cutting (FGC) is a harmful traditional practice that violates women's rights and threatens their health. Although much work has been done to tackle this practice in Ethiopia, the prevalence remains very high in Somali and Harari regions. This study aims to investigate the attitude towards FGC of young people (boys and girls) in Somali and Harari regions of.
  5. The number of health providers who have been trained to manage the complications resulting from female genital cutting (FGC) procedures, including obstetric/gynecological related, as well as psycho-social, in a specific time period (depending on how often the program holds trainings) in a geographical area of interest
  6. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the immediate complications of FGC can include excessive bleeding, swelling, fever, infection, urinary problems, shock, and death, and the long-term complications can range from menstrual problems, sexual challenges, and psychological issues to an increased risk of childbirth complications.

  1. long-term health consequences of FGC vary according to the type and severity of the procedure performed, but it considers all types of FGC to damage the normal function of the external fe-male genitalia resulting in documented physical complications. Cultural Aspects of FGC The age at which FGC is performed varies according to ethnic group.
  2. Long-term complications of FGC have been studied and reviewed by many authors, though prevalence of such complications has been fraught with lack of standardization of type and sub-type of FGC. Such complications include urethral strictures, meatal obstruction, pyelonephritis, keloids, hematocolpos, dysmenorrhea, vaginal stenosis, neuromas, and.
  3. Since FGC causes many girls to quit school or work, their economic opportunities are limited, and economic growth is stunted. 97 One uncut woman said her peers at work often had to take sick leave for menstrual complications resulting from FGC; many were subsequently demoted or fired. 98 Further, women who undergo FGC often require more medical.
  4. Immediate complications may include pain, infection, laceration of adjacent structures (eg, the bladder, urethra, vagina, or rectum), and uncontrolled hemorrhage.Long-term complications, seen mostly in women with type III FGC, include chronic urinary tract infections, severe dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia, which in severe cases may lead to.

Female genital cutting (FGC) inflicts life-long injuries on women and their female children. It constitutes a violation of women's fundamental human rights and threats to bodily integrity. Though decreasing, the practice is high and widespread in Nigeria despite efforts towards its eradication. This study was conducted to perform cohort analysis of the state of FGC between the years 2009 and. Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is defined by WHO as all • The complications and management of FGC in adolescent is the same as those in adult women. • Providers should be sensitive sexual issues, increase knowledge on FGC, and be attentive to self destructive behaviors The practice of female genital cutting (FGC) has a long history in Africa and it is thought that over 130 million women and girls alive today have undergone it (Morris, 2006). While its exact origins are unclear, FGC appears to predate both Islam and Christianity. Moreover, while FGC

WHO Female genital cutting: current practices and

Guideline No. 395-Female Genital Cutting

  1. Introduction. Female genital cutting/mutilation (FGC/M), or circumcision as it was previously described 1, is held responsible for a multitude of health risks.According to WHO, FGC/M is defined as all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons 2
  2. However, FGC plays no role as a rite of passage. Underlying these reasons are the use of infibulation to enforce the cultural value of sexual purity in females. A relevant lesson learned from FGC abandonment strategies elsewhere is the impor tance of working with inter-marrying groups, as FGC is a critical prerequisitefor marriage
  3. Four Main Types of FGC. Type 1: Partial or total removal of the clitoris or clitoridectomy. Type 2: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia or excision. Type 3: Sewing the labia together to make the vaginal opening smaller or infibulation.The clitoris may be left in place. Type 4: All other harm to the female genitalia for nonmedical purposes including pricking, piercing.
  4. One medical complication is heavy pains because you have an accession of the genitalia, says Jallabah. You have nerves endings and tissues that cause strong pains when cut. According to Dr. Jallabah, bleeding is another complication of FGC
  5. form of female genital cutting (FGC), infibulation, for centuries. To understand the context within which the practice takes place, and how its complications are managed, the Populatio

Chronic complications FGC - and it's health complication

Guideline No. 395-Female Genital Cutting - ScienceDirec

  1. Many of them have undergone the tradition of FGC and are living with the health complications of this procedure. The Center is home to the first and only African health practice in the United States that focuses on issues regarding FGC
  2. JDCR also considered the complications of having Evo-sized tournaments online, finding it impossible to play a comfortable game with thousands of players from different regions. The two-time Evo champ also stated that fighting game tours are built on traditional FGC offline culture that revel in hype moments and banter with the crowd.
  3. complications affect girls and women, especially those in their pre-pubertal or adolescent stages. Psychological consequence is one of the complications of FGC. Similar to other complications which ensue due to FGC, psychological complications also affects females of pre-pubertal an
  4. isters, members of parliament and mayors at the request of the President of Mali. The video serves as a technical tool to help providers recognize FGC complications, and is part of an FGC resource package that contains the national FGC train-ing curriculum and a poster and flipchart to assist provider
  5. WHO affirms that FGC has no health benefits, and it harms girls and women in many ways (WHO 2000). FGC interferes with the natural functions of girls' and women's bodies. Immediate complications can include severe pain, shock, hemorrhage, tetanus or sepsis, urine retention, open sores in the genital region, and injury to nearby genital.
  6. ds of those involved with the practice
  7. Female genital cutting (FGC), or female genital mutilation (FGM), is the practice of removing parts or all of a woman's external genitalia for various purposes. This could range from cutting the tip of the clitoris to removing the inner and outer labia, and in some communities, stitching the labia nearly closed

Knowledge and perspectives of female genital cutting among

The WHO (2000) states that the immediate and long‐term health consequences of FGC vary according to the type and severity of the procedure performed, but it considers all types of FGC to damage the normal function of the external female genitalia resulting in documented physical complications • Discuss the physical impact of FGC (including short and long term morbidity) • Describe gynecological, obstetric, psychological outcomes as well as the psychosexual outcomes of FGC. • Recognize and describe the various health complications of FGC on girls' health through the lifespan birth who had a complication of female genital mutilation. Results: A total of 1295 women gave birth in the service, of which 1204 women were women with female genital mutilation. Giv a frequency of 92.97%en , of these 1204 muti-lated women, 223 presented obstetrical complications during their delivery, a proportion of 17.22%

Female genital mutilatio

But most types of female circumcisions involve more than this. Complications associated with FGC, which can continue through a lifetime, are also much more severe than those of male circumcision. Complications with FGC. FGC can be dangerous and cause lifelong health and emotional problems for women who have been cut What is Female Genital Cutting? Female genital cutting (FGC) means cutting, removing, or sewing closed some or all of a girl's or woman's private parts. FGC can also be called female circumcision, female genital mutilation, khatna or khafd, or tahor. FGC can go by many other names not listed here. Many Countries Oppose and.

Female genital mutilation | Wiki | Everipedia

The Pros And Cons Of Female Genital Cutting - 1447 Words

Johnson & Okon Perception and Practice of FGC could not classify it. Up to 136 (62.4%) of the respondents knew about possible complications of FGC. The commonest complication mentioned by 80 (36.7%) of the respondents was bleeding. A total of 90 (41.3%) of the respondents opined that FGC was a good practice while 128 (58.7%) felt i The SOGC clinical practice guideline No. 395 Female Genital Cutting provides evidence-based information on caring for women who have been affected by FGC, including guidance for the management of obstetrical and gynaecological complications and provision of culturally competent care

Tostan: The Festivities Begin for the Public DeclarationPaul Sutliff on Civilization Jihad: Islamic Social NormsWe Visited a Mass Female Circumcision Ceremony in Indonesia

Care for pregnant women who have experienced genital

The Reality of Female Genital Cutting (FGC) by Dr. J. Kyle Mathews | May 30th, 2010. The WHO estimates that up to 140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone some form of FGC, usually between infancy and 15 years of age. In the United States, nearly 228,000 female immigrants or refugees have been cut or are at risk for being cut. of Health and Population (MoHP) that allowed to be performed only by physicians in FGC designated facilities (mainly public hospitals) at fixed times and cost (ShellDuncan 2001). The - decree was initially issued with the intention of reducing FGC complications and, eventually, ending the practice The number and percent of health facilities providing medical and psychological services and referrals for services for women and girls with complications from female genital cutting (FGC). Data Requirement(s) USAID Policy on Female Genital Cutting (FGC) Effective Date: 09/01/2000 1. severity of complications depend on the type of FGC performed. Almost all of the practicing communities believe that FGC preserves the girl's virginity by diminishing sexual desire. For families in FGC-practicing countries, the ultimate goa Women suffering from more severe forms of FGC experienced increased probability of reproductive health complications. Five percent of uncut women experienced birthing complications, compared to 18 percent of women who had Type I cutting, 30 percent of women with Type II cutting, and 30 percent of women with Type III cutting (Jones, et al. 1999)

When I'm Prime Minister

Knowledge of Female Genital Cutting and Experience With

Implications and complications of FGC FGC is dangerous to girls' and women's health and psycho-logical well- being. It can cause urological, gynaecological and obstetric problems. Around 10% of girls and women are estimated to die from the short- term complications of FGC, such as haemorrhage, shock and infection. Anothe of FGC carry the same risks.6 Most of the short-term and long-term complications from FGC are related to types I-III as well as the skill of the practitioner.1 4 18 21 26 32 34 However, a review of literature conducted did not show strong evidence that the practice poses a great danger to women's health. Complications from the more seriou wound healing. Women who have undergone FGC can suffer immediate and long-term complications. Immediate complications include bleeding, hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility, chronic vaginal, and urinary tract infections. Pre-op Area typically removed in infibulatio The harmful health effects from FGC can include prolonged bleeding, fistulas, urine retention, serious complications to childbirth, and infertility. A UN General Assembly passed a resolution banning FGC in 2012, and FGC-related legislation also exists in 24 of the 29 countries where it is practiced, including the US and much of Europe

Impact of a communication programme on female genital

FGC creates a number of short- and long-term health consequences. Severe bleeding is the most common immediate complication. Many other complications, such as urine retention or keloids, can lead to discomfort and disfigurement but are typically not life-threatening. Nearly all forms of FGC interfere with women's sexual response Complications included swelling, infections, abscesses or nodules beneath the skin, penile shortening, gangrene, and erectile dysfunction (ED). Ten patients had corrective surgery to remove the enlargement materials. Penile appearance and function improved, but none of the men had a completely normal penis afterward and female genital cutting to be comparable, 10% high-lighted similarities. There was a clear discrepancy in at-titude towards health complications and children's rights. Separation of female genital cutting from religion might be part of the explanation FGC causes serious psychological and health complications. The practice is often done under unsanitary conditions, and without anesthesia. The average age of girls forced to undergo FGC is between 4 and 12. There are no health benefits of FGC. Help stop the practice of Female Genital Cutting. Tell President Obama to fight for human rights, and. Complications following FGM, especially if the girl is infibulated, are common and many are well documented. These may be immediate or late. The major immediate complications are, of course, hemorrhage from the dorsal artery, shock and then infection, urinary retention and tetanus, which can lead to mortality. 10-12

Obstetrical Complications of Female Genital Mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting (FGC), is practiced in 30 countries in western, eastern, and north-eastern Africa, in parts of the Middle East and Asia, and within some immigrant communities in Europe, North America and Australia. The WHO defines the practice as all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or. At the Girl Summit on July 22, 2014, Britain took the lead against combating female genital cutting (FGC) and child marriage on both the domestic and global level. · Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, infertility as well as complications in childbirth and increased risk of new-born deaths Keywords. Clitoral neuroma formation-underreported complication of FGC resulting in chronic vulvar pain; Female genital cutting (FGC) Mixed findings with regards to sexual pain associated with FGC FGC continues to pose a socio-economic burden on the women, girls, families and communities, an immediate risk to the health of the girl and has ongoing health and social effects throughout a girl.

The association between physical complications following

Complications during delivery. Sexual dissatisfaction Pain during sexual intercourse Pain during first sexual intercourse Problems associated with cicumcision experienced by women. Female circumcision, also know as female genital cutting (FGC), is nearly universal in the Kersa study area. Approximately nine - out-of-ten women ages 15 -49 repor The three immediate complications are bleeding, pain and infection. They are not unique to FGC. They are liable to occur with any other type of female surgery, whether minor or major. Bleeding is liable to occur with the tiniest injury to the body, not only genitalia, and death may occur if not dealt with

The World Health Organization has classified FGC into four types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes for the practice of FGC are cultural and religious beliefs even though the practice is independent of religion [7, 11, 14]. FGC has no health benet but inicts serious health complications which are irreversible on its victims; such as menstrual pain, excessive bleeding during delivery, infections (such HIV/Aids, hepatitis, urinary tract infec Conclusion: This thesis indicates high prevalence of FGC and RI in settings in Sudan and health complications associated with the practices. The motives are not only social, sexual, traditional and economic, but also embrace normality, identity and power relations related to paternalism, maternalism and patriarchy