Which galilean moon has an underground ocean

How Jupiter moon Europa's underground ocean was discovered. The Galilean moons proved to be full of surprises at close range. An active volcano was spotted on the innermost of the Galilean. It is thought that Callisto may have a liquid underground ocean at a depth of approximately 100 kilometers. However, scientists think the conditions for potential life may be less advantageous than on Europa, the next moon we'll cover The innermost moon is volcanic Io; next in line is the ice-crusted ocean world Europa, followed by massive Ganymede, and finally, heavily cratered Callisto The Galilean Moons are the major moons of Jupiter. They include Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They were discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. Io is the most geologically active body in the Solar System, Europa is the smallest of the four but is believed to have a huge underground ocean, Ganymede is the largest of the four The Galilean moons (or Galilean satellites) / ɡ æ l ɪ ˈ l iː ə n / are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.They were first seen by Galileo Galilei in December 1609 or January 1610, and recognized by him as satellites of Jupiter in March 1610. They were the first objects found to orbit a planet other than the Earth. They are among the largest objects in.

How Jupiter moon Europa's underground ocean was discovered

  1. A salty ocean is lurking beneath the surface of Jupiter's largest moon, Ganymede, scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope have found. The ocean on Ganymede — which is buried under a thick crust..
  2. At 3121.6 kilometers in diameter, it is the smallest of the Galileans, and slightly smaller than the Moon. Europa's surface consists of a layer of water surrounding the mantle which is thought to be 100 kilometers thick
  3. Callisto is the fourth and farthest Galilean moon. At 4820.6 kilometers in diameter, it is also the second largest of the Galileans and third largest moon in the Solar System. Callisto is named.
  4. At present it looks very likely that Jupiter's second large moon Europa may have an underground water ocean, and Saturn's moon Enceladus may also have one. Saturn's largest moon Titan appears to have lakes,if not an ocean, of hydrocarbons. 32 view
  5. How Jupiter Moon Europa's Underground Ocean Was Discovered Complex and beautiful patterns adorn the icy surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, as seen in this color image intended to approximate how the..
  6. The most famous unearthly underground ocean is located on Jupiter's moon, Europa. It is a small icy world with a radius four times smaller than that of the Earth. By the way, it is the smallest of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter

The detection of sodium chloride on the surface of Europa lends support to the theory that Europa not only has an underground ocean, but that this ocean contains the building blocks of life, and perhaps its own ecosystem of living organisms Observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellites—Europa, Callisto, Ganymede and Io—have long hinted at the presence of subsurface liquid layers. Three of the moons are thought to have a water-rich.. Scientists have also found strong evidence of an underground ocean. It orbits Jupiter at a distance of 1,070,400 kilometers (665.116 miles). Ganymede was discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7, 1610. The discovery, along with three other Jovian moons, was the first time a moon was discovered orbiting a planet other than Earth New data suggests Jupiter's moon Ganymede, the largest in the solar system, has an underground ocean which contains more water than all of Earth's surface water combined, according to NASA

Callisto may have an underground salty ocean making it a potential habitat for life The moon has an ancient, cratered surface, which is the basis that geological processes in the moon could be dead. It is, however, unclear whether or not it holds an underground ocean. It is discovered by Galileo Galilei in the year 1610

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Why Jupiter's four largest moons are among the most

  1. What Makes Us Think There is an Ocean Beneath Europa's Icy Crust? Europa and her three large sibling satellites - Io, Ganymede and Callisto - were discovered by the astronomer Galileo in 1610, but nearly 400 years passed before any detailed views of their surfaces were seen and the uniqueness of these Galilean moons was revealed
  2. Europa is about the size of Earth's moon and likely has a huge, salty ocean. Volcanoes on Io, the second-largest Galilean moon, likely burp out sulfur-rich nutrients that then enter Europa's ocean
  3. Being the only moons large enough to view with the aid of simple binoculars (besides our own of course), it is no wonder that the four Galilean moons of Jupiter have captured our attention and curiosity since their discovery in 1610. These four moons, Europa, Io, Ganymede, and Callisto have recently moved out of the realm of simple curiosity for the sake of science and into the new focus of.
  4. April 28, 2019 at 6:00 a.m. The moons of Jupiter. As mentioned last week, current count has them at 79, though only 53 have been officially named. The majority of these moons are fairly tiny.

In Depth Jupiter Moons - NASA Solar System Exploratio

  1. g Each Other. In a process called tidal heating, gravitational push and pull from Jupiter's Galilean moons — Europa, Ganymede, Io and Callisto — and.
  2. This composite image shows the four Galilean moons with the planet Jupiter; from top, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. (NASA) The moons of Jupiter. As mentioned last week, current count has them.
  3. It appears that Callisto, like another of Jupiter's moons Europa, may have an underground liquid ocean and at least some of the basic ingredients for life. The most distant of Jupiter's Galilean Moons, Callisto shows the highest density of impact craters in the Solar System, but harbors no volcanoes or even any large mountains
  4. Juno has already had a brief look at Ganymede, returning the first-ever images of its north pole after a flyby on December 26, 2019.. An ocean moon: why Ganymede is so interesting. Although.
  5. Other Moons of Jupiter. Though Jupiter has 79 moons, 63 of them are less than 10 km / 6.2 mi in diameter. Jupiter's regular moons consist of the Galilean moons and an inner group of 4 small moons with diameters less than 200 km / 124 mi, and orbits with radii less than 200,000 km / 124,274 mi
  6. The Galilean Moons. Each of the Jovian planets has a number of moons, although Jupiter has the most with more than 60 catalogued to date. Jupiter's 4 largest moons exhibit some of the most interesting geology in the solar system. They were discovered by Galileo Galilei and are known as the Galilean moons. Jupiter's largest moon, Ganymede, is.

Galilean moons Astronomy Wiki Fando

  1. Of the Galilean moons, Callisto is the furthest from Jupiter. Callisto has a very thin atmosphere, is thought to contain an ocean, and is therefore another possible contender for life beyond Earth. However, its distance from Jupiter means it doesn't experience such a strong gravitational pull, so it's not as geologically active as the other.
  2. From 1996 to 1999, the Galileo spacecraft careered through the jovian system on a complex but carefully planned trajectory that provided repeated close encounters with the large Galilean moons. (Beginning in 2004, we received an even greater bonanza of information about Titan, obtained from the Cassini spacecraft and its Huygens probe, which landed on its surface
  3. Start studying Galilean Moons. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Create. Log in Sign up. 16 terms. BaseballBlowout28. Galilean Moons. There is said to have a huge ocean under its surface. Europa. Its surface is almost completely covered in ice and water. Europa. It has a metallic core.

Separated from the sun by a vast distance of 3.67 billion miles/5.9 billion km, it's quite obvious that the dwarf-planet, Pluto, is an incredibly cold world. It's so cold, in fact, that it has. It's really quite impressive that this little world has its own underground ocean. 3 The Biggest Ocean In The Solar System. Beneath the 50-kilometer-thick (31 mi) destructive clouds of Jupiter lies a mammoth ocean of liquid hydrogen. Making up a whopping 78 percent of the planet's radius, the ocean is 54,531 kilometers (33,884 mi) deep : Match each Galilean moon to its description-a. Most volcanically active body in the Solar System b. Has a large underground liquid water ocean c. Largest moon in the Solar System d. Outermost Galilean moon a. IO b. Europa c. Ganymede d. Callisto 18.: Match each region with its description-a The names of these Galilean Moons are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, which we will be discussing a little bit today. The discovery of these moons by Galileo Galilea in January of 1610 is a crucial turning point for astronomy because this was the first time a moon was discovered orbiting a planet other than Earth Scientists believe that Jupiter has not less than a hundred satellites, but, as already mentioned, to date 67 moons are recorded and 63 are well studied. Jupiter's satellites are divided in three groups: Galilean, inner and irregular. Let's start with the Galilean. Galilean Moons

Galilean moons - Wikipedi

Outermost Galilean moon. Callisto. Moon with a large underground liquid water ocean. Jupiter's gravity deforms Io, resulting in tidal heating. What moon has lakes of methane and ethane and a thick nitrogen atmosphere. Titan. What moon has a global underground liquid water ocean. Enceladus. What moon has a light hemisphere and a dark hemisphere Callisto is the second-largest moon of Jupiter and third-largest moon in the Solar system. This Galilean moon has a diameter of 2,996 miles and an orbital radius of about 1,170,042 miles. Callisto is tidally locked during rotation meaning that it orbits Jupiter with the same hemisphere facing inwards making Jupiter seemingly stands still in.

The same process of tidal locking has occurred with Earth's own moon: we always see the same side of the Moon's surface. Like the other moons, Callisto is made up of a mix of water ice (with the possibility of a small, underground liquid ocean somewhere) and a rocky core moons make up a sort of miniature solar system. This was the aspect of Jupiter that most amazed Galileo when, near the beginning of the 17. th. century, he first observed it through a telescope. Just as the planets orbiting the sun at greater and greater distances show gradual, systematic changes in their composition, so the 4 large Galilean. [♪ INTRO]. Jupiter's four largest moons have drawn our attention for centuries, ever since Galileo spotted them with his homemade telescope. But they've gotten especially interesting to us over the last few decades, as astronomers have discovered that at least three of them likely have underground oceans of liquid water, while the fourth may have an ocean of magma Its four biggest moons - Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto - are known as the Galilean moons because they were first spotted by Galileo Galilei in 1610. also has an underground salt ocean. Jupiter's Ocean Moons Raise Tidal Waves on One Another . New research considers the effect of Jupiter's Galilean moons on each other's oceans for the first time

Jupiter's Moon Ganymede Has a Salty Ocean with More Water

Jupiter - Jupiter - The Galilean satellites: Galileo proposed that the four Jovian moons he discovered in 1610 be named the Medicean stars, in honour of his patron, Cosimo II de' Medici, but they soon came to be known as the Galilean satellites in honour of their discoverer. Galileo regarded their existence as a fundamental argument in favour of the Copernican model of the solar system, in. The three icy Galilean moons, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, are thought to contain liquid water oceans beneath their surface, while the innermost moon Io --the volcanic epicenter of our.

Orbital resonances of the Galilean moons of Jupiter | The

Cutaway diagram of Callisto, showing possible ocean beneath the icy surface. Callisto is the second largest moon of Jupiter and the third largest in the solar system, after Ganymede and Titan. Orbiting beyond Jupiter's main radiation belts, Callisto is the outermost of the Galilean satellites. It also has the lowest density of the Galilean. Ganymede / ˈ ɡ æ n ɪ m iː d /, a satellite of Jupiter (Jupiter III), is the largest and most massive of the Solar System's moons.The ninth-largest object in the Solar System, it is the largest without a substantial atmosphere. It has a diameter of 5,268 km (3,273 mi), making it 26% larger than the planet Mercury by volume, although it is only 45% as massive Callisto is the second-largest moon of Jupiter. It has the oldest surface in the solar system, which suggests little geological activity. The Galileo mission to Jupiter, which lasted from 1990 to 2000, showed an underground ocean under Callisto's crust, the depth of which is 250 km. And the white dots on the satellite could be ice-covered.

CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Magnetometer measurements now suggest that all three large icy moons of Jupiter may have an underground ocean [1]. The morphology and the color variations of Europa's surface are suggestive that ma-terials from its ocean may have modified the surface in geologically recent times Galilean Satellites: Not all the terrestrial worlds are planets. For example, the Galilean worlds are the four largest moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They were first seen by Galileo Galilei in January 1610, and recognized by him as satellites of Jupiter in March 1610. They are the first objects found to orbit another planet Ganymede (moon) Ganymede /ˈɡænɨmiːd/ (Jupiter III) is a satellite of Jupiter and the largest moon in the Solar System. It is the seventh moon and third Galilean satellite outward from Jupiter. Completing an orbit in roughly seven days, Ganymede participates in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance with the moons Europa and Io, respectively The Galilean moons. Of the four moons Galileo discovered, Ganymede is the largest, followed by Callisto, Io and Europa. Ganymede is in fact the 9th largest body in the solar system and is bigger than Pluto and Mercury. The Galilean Moons are the fifth through eighth closest of the known moons orbiting Jupiter

Which Galilean moon is most likely to harbor life? - Quor

  1. In recent years there has been considerable interest in Europa - one of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The Galileo Mission has provided encouraging evidence that Europa might have an ocean of liquid water under a layer of ice and this has stimulated speculation that life might possibly exist in such an environment. A future mission to send.
  2. Previously, the moon was thought to harbour a thick ocean sandwiched between just two layers of ice, one on top and one on bottom, but now it seems it has multiple layers
  3. The moons of Jupiter were first discovered in 1610. Galileo Galilei discovered at that time the four largest Jovian satellites system Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. These Galilean moons called for, were the first to be observed except that of Earth. Today, thanks to space probes, we have a more comprehensive view of the Jovian system
  4. Europa is about the size of Earth's moon. Beneath an icy crust maybe 10 to 15 miles (15 to 25 kilometers) thick, investigators think Europa possesses a giant, churning ocean perhaps up to 100.

What are the Galilean Moons? - Universe Toda

It is the seventh moon and third Galilean satellite outward from Jupiter. Completing an orbit in roughly seven days, Ganymede participates in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance with the moons Europa and Io, respectively. It has a diameter of 5,268 km (3,273 mi), 8% larger than that of the planet Mercury, but has only 45% of the latter's mass.[14 The Galilean moon with the farthest orbit from Jupiter is Callisto. Unlike Io and Europa (and even Ganymede to an extent), where geologic activity has erased many craters, Callisto bears the scars. That article provides perhaps the strongest evidence to date for the existence of an ocean under the ice of Europa, and also under the rocky, icy crust of Callisto. So perhaps it is reasonable after all to think that at least two of the Galilean moons might have oceans of liquid water. The authors suggest that Ganymede too might have an ocean NASA Maps Out Goals for Potential Landing On Jupiter's Moon Europa. This artist's concept shows a simulated view from the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Europa's potentially rough, icy surface, tinged with reddish areas that scientists hope to learn more about, can be seen in the foreground. The giant planet

NASA: Volcanoes on Jupiter's Moon Io Are in the “Wrong” Place

It is the seventh moon and third Galilean satellite outward from Jupiter. Completing an orbit in roughly seven days, Ganymede participates in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance with the moons Europa and Io, respectively. It has a diameter of Template:Convert, 8% larger than that of the planet Mercury, but has only 45% of the latter's mass The probe will investigate whether Jupiter's moon Europa and its internal ocean have conditions suitable for life (NASA/JPL-Caltech) On the first morning of June, the waning half-moon will shine. space probes as they approached the Galilean moons. the mass of the Galilean moons could be determined. This allowed the density of the moons to be determined (ρ = mass/volume). Ganymede and Callisto have densities of < 2000 kg/m3. Io has a density of 3529 kg/m3 while Europa has a density of 3018 kg/m3

Jupiter&#39;s Moon Callisto - Universe TodayRevealed: Daring NASA Mission To Explore An Ocean Of Lava

The Galilean Moons Villa (entire property: 10 bedrooms, 9 The complex has its own water (private well and underground tank) and electricity (solar panels, generator), central vacuum, central heating and cooling that can be independently controlled in each room. The spectacular panoramic ocean vistas are still visible inside the warm. Ganymede. (gan -ă-meed) The brightest and largest of the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter. With a diameter of 5262 km it is the largest satellite in the Solar System. It is in fact larger in diameter than the planet Mercury but is only half as massive. It has an albedo of 0.42 and a density of 1.94 g cm -3 Like Ganymede, the moon is similar in size to Mercury but, with less than a third of that planet's mass, it is the least dense of all the Galilean moons. Like both Ganymede and Europa, Callisto is thought to have a large ocean beneath its surface, although the evidence for this is less compelling than for the other two moons Ganymede is also the only known moon with its own magnetic field. Scientists have even found evidence for an underground ocean of liquid water beneath its icy surface. Citizen scientist Gerald Eichstädt created this image using data from the JunoCam camera. The images were acquired on Dec. 25, 2019, between 6:10 and 7:00 p.m. PST (9:10 and 10.

A Mythical Monkey writes about the movies: February 2014

The Galileo probe discovered its underground ocean and its magnetic field. In addition to the four Galilean moons, observations from Earth and space probes have estimated the total number of Jupiter moons at 67. The European Space Agency is planning a mission to the Jupiter system for the year 2022. There will be several flybys of the Galilean. The Galilean moons ( or Galilean satellites) are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They were first seen by Galileo Galilei in December 1609 or January 1610 and recognized by him as satellites of Jupiter in March 1610. The Galilean moons were the first objects found to orbit a planet other than Earth Of the four Galilean moons, Io (the one with volcanoes) is the only one not suspected to have an ocean beneath its crust. While attention has often focused on Europa, Ganymede experiences many of. It has at the very least 79 moons, however probably the most fascinating for astronomers are 4 of them, often known as Galilean satellites: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Of those moons, Europe has drawn explicit consideration : There are constant indications that it hides an ocean beneath its floor that might help life

Most scientists agree that the moon's icy crust conceals a vast underground ocean. A new modeling study now shows how the wide, smooth or faulted bands crisscrossing the moon's surface likely. Oddities in the rotation of Saturn's largest moon Titan might add to growing evidence that it harbors an underground ocean, researchers suggest. the Galilean moons — Io, Europa, Ganymede and. The smallest of the Galilean satellites, Europa is a true water world: Beneath its crisscrossed, icy shell lies a salty global ocean that contains more water than all of Earth's seas

Europa is constantly squeezed and stretched by the competing gravitational fields of Jupiter and the other Galilean moons, moon with a subsurface ocean of of an underground store of liquid. Hand-painted Jupiters Moons on Dickies Short Sleeve Heavyweight Pocket Tee Colour: Cream Size: XL Material: 100% Cotton Sleeve Length: Short Sleeve (Europa & Ganymede) Each moon is lovingly painted on the back of the tee with an accompanying tiny moon on the front pocket The Galilean Moons are th

Jupiter has 79 moons. Of these, 72 have confirmed orbits and 52 have been named. The largest moons are known as the Galilean moons because they were discovered by Galileo Galilei when I was much younger: Io, Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede, the largest moon in our solar system. This giant is larger than the planet Mercury sciencehabit writes The solar system's largest moon, Ganymede, in orbit around Jupiter, harbors an underground ocean containing more water than all the oceans on Earth, according to new observations by the Hubble Space Telescope.Ganymede now joins Jupiter's Europa and two moons of Saturn, Titan and Enceladus, as moons with subsurface oceans—and good places to look for life The innermost Galilean moon of Jupiter, Io is thought to be home to an underground ocean of magma. Now a new mission, Io Volcano Observer (IVO), is being proposed to NASA. Not studied up close.

Which of the solar system's moons are most likely to have

Jupiter has seventy-nine moons. Jupiter has many moons and satellites, most of which are less than ten kilometers in size. Of the seventy-nine known moons of Jupiter, sixty are smaller than 6.2 miles in diameter. The number of moons around Jupiter is constantly changing, with the latest moon discovered in 2018 (as of 2019) Scientists have long suspected that there was an ocean of liquid water on Ganymede—the largest moon in the solar system, at about 3,273 miles (5,268 kilometers) across—has an ocean of liquid. Five more worlds could possibly possess underground oceans. Electrical currents detected by the Galileo probe suggest that cratered Callisto may be the third Galilean moon where life could exist; a saltwater ocean could act as the conductor

How Jupiter Moon Europa's Underground Ocean Was Discovere

They now think that this moon of Jupiter appears to have its volcanoes in the wrong place because of a hidden ocean of magma. Such a molten rock ocean hidden in the moon's underground and its. Europa's underground ocean could harbour life, a new NASA study shows. According to a new NASA study, the frozen ocean on Jupiter's Galilean moon Europa has the necessary balance of energy to harbor life. Namely, the paper suggests that the ocean has a similar balance of oxygen and hydrogen to that found on Earth

Alien Life More Likely to Exist in Worlds With Underground

Jupiter's Moon Europa: A Moon With an Ocean — and Possibly

Jupiter's four largest moons - aka. the Galilean moons, consisting of Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto - are nothing if not fascinating. Ever since their discovery over four centuries ago. And it could put Ceres among a rapidly-growing group of potential icy ocean worlds that have been revealed in recent years. Ceres is the only dwarf planet in the inner solar system, and it locks. Jupiter's four largest moons - Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto - are known as the Galilean satellites, after their discoverer, famed astronomer Galileo Galilei. [ Photos: The Galilean Moons of. Facts About Callisto. Callisto is one of Jupiter's moons, and it is one of the four Galilean moons. Compared to Earth's Moon, Callisto's diameter is about 1.4 times that of the Moon and 1.5 times in mass. The distance between its parent planet, Jupiter, and Callisto is about 5 times the distance between Earth and our Moon December 12, 2013 / 3:55 PM / Space.com. Jupiter's icy moon Europa may erupt with fleeting plumes of water more than 20 times the height of Mt. Everest, scientists say. If these giant waterspouts.

How Jupiter Moon Europa's Underground Ocean Was Discovered

Jupiter's Ocean Moons Raise One Another's Tides

Jupiter has 4 large moons (the Galilean Moons) with the rest too small for colonization. Volcanically active Io has oceans of lava instead of water. Europa is a frozen ice planet but beneath the surface there is a planet wide underground ocean. Heavily cratered Callisto has impassible mountains that divide up the continents 1. Out of 67 moons of Jupiter, Ganymede is the largest moon and belongs to the group of 4 largest moons of the gas giant that are together known as the Galilean Moons. 2. It is not only the largest natural satellite of Jupiter but it is also the largest natural satellite of our entire solar system. 3 IO HAS VOLCANOES. These volcanoes spew sulfur, which is what gives the moon its colour. Io is the most geologically active object in the solar system. The tidal forces of Jupiter and the other Galilean moons causes the interior of Io to heat up, causing these volcanoes. Over 400 volcanoes exist on Io. All that sulfur has also made another moon Pappalardo and his colleagues further recommend that any Europa lander be capable of drilling up to 4 inches (10 centimeters) into the moon's surface ice. Collecting underground samples from different depths would help scientists figure out the ocean's composition and determine how it is affected by the high levels of radiation that bombard the icy moon, they write Ganymede (moon) Ganymede [p] is the largest of over 66 moons of the planet Jupiter. It is also the largest moon in the Solar System. Ganymede is larger in diameter than the planet Mercury, but has only about half of its mass. Ganymede is much less dense. Ganymede is part of a group called the Galilean Satellites

It has been two decades since Jupiter's Galilean moons were studied in detail by a space mission. The last time this happened was between 1995 and 2003 when the satellites were studied by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Later today, the Juno spacecraft will approach the moon Ganymede and observe the surface from about 1,000 kilometers The new research reveals that Jupiter-moon gravitational whiplash can produce sufficient warmth to soften the rocky mantle on the backside of Europa's ocean and probably produce seafloor volcanoes. It would not be shocking. We have identified for many years that the planet's moon Io is probably the most volcanically energetic place within the photo voltaic system with a whole lot of. The Voyager probes refined measurements of its size, while Galileodiscovered its underground ocean and magnetic field. The next planned mission to the Jovian system is the European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), due to launch in 2022. After flybys of all three icy Galilean moons, the probe is planned to enter orbit around. Or is it useful because Europa is subjected to the kind of tidal forces that might cause it to have an underground ocean? Ann. C o l o r C o m m e n t a t o r. Top. neufer Vacationer at Tralfamadore Posts: 18081 Joined: Mon Jan 21, 2008 1:57 pm Galilean moon induced Jupiter tides have caused the Galilean moons to social distance from.

What if Ganymede was the Earth's second moon? - Our Plane

NASA: Jupiter's Moon Ganymede has a Salty Ocean with More

Evidence for an Ocean Why Europa? - NASA's Europa Clippe