Acute renal failure ppt

  1. Acute Renal Failure Matthew L. Paden, MD Pediatric Critical Care Emory University Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston. Title: Acute Renal Failure and Renal Replacement Therapy Author: Matthew Paden Last modified by: ngapham Created Date: 4/18/2005 10:49:24 PM Document presentation format
  2. Acute and chronic renal failure 1. Acute and chronic renal failure Dr. S. Parasuraman Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST. 2. Renal failure • Renal failure is defined as a significant loss of renal function in both kidneys to the point where less than 10 to 20% of normal GFR remains
  3. Renal Failure. Acute Renal Failure Is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to remove accumulated metabolites from the blood, leading to altered fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. Has an abrupt onset and with prompt intervention is often reversible. ACUTE RENAL FAILURE Acute renal failure (ARF) has four well-defined stages/phases: onset, oliguric or anuric, diuretic, and.
  4. ACUTE RENAL FAILURE Academic Half Day February 9, 2012 - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 7e99c3-ZGE2
  5. RENAL FAILURE The term Renal Failure means failure of renal excretory function due to depression of GFR. ACUTE RENAL FAILURE Acute renal failure (ARF) is defined as sudden and usually reversible deterioration of renal function occurring over a period of hours to days OR rarely weeks and results in uremia leading to AR
  6. Prerenal Failure: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment (1) - Acute Renal Failure (ARF) is the sudden loss of kidney functionality. The causes of ARF are classified into three categories such as prerenal, renal, and postrenal. Prerenal ARF is caused by problems that affect the flow of blood, before it enters the kidneys

Acute and chronic renal failure - SlideShar

Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the sudden and recent reduction in kidney function resulting in a inability to maintain fluid, electrolyte and acid base balance. AKI is a syndrome that usually occurs in the presence of other acute illness such as SEPSIS or HEART FAILURE ACUTE AND CHRONIC. RENAL FAILURE. Mimi, Connie and Pat. Acute renal failure (ARF): is the sudden and. severe reduction in previously normal renal function, may result from primary renal disease but is more frequently associated with other organ failure. Failure is often reversible, but should the kidneys fail to recover, permanent treatment will be required.. Causes Renal failure, whether chronic or acute, is usually categorised according to pre-renal, renal and post-renal causes. Researchers also report finding a significant association between smoking, heavy alcohol intake and chronic kidney disease. Pre-renal (causes in the blood supply): hypotension (decreased blood supply), usually from shock. Acute Kidney Injury By Linda Awdishu, Pharm.D., MAS; and Sheryl E. Wu, Pharm.D., BCPS INTRODUCTION Acute kidney injury (AKI) results in the abrupt loss of kidney function, leading to the retention of waste products, electrolyte disturbances, and volume status changes. The term AKI has replaced acute renal failure because smaller changes in. Kellum JA, Angus DC. Patients are dying of acute renal failure. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:2156-2157. National Institute for Clinical Excellence CG174 Intravenous Fluid Therapy CG169 Acute Kidney Injury (2014) Selby et al (2012) Use of Electronic Results Reporting to Diagnose and Monitor AKI in Hospitalised Patient

People with end-stage renal disease require either permanent dialysis — a mechanical filtration process used to remove toxins and wastes from the body — or a kidney transplant to survive. Death. Acute kidney failure can lead to loss of kidney function and, ultimately, death. Prevention. Acute kidney failure is often difficult to predict or. Renal Failure Wendy DeMartino, MD PGY-2 Objectives Anatomy Function Acute Renal Failure (ARF) Causes Symptoms Management Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) Causes Symptoms Dialysis Anatomy 2 Kidneys 2 Ureters Bladder Urethra Kidney Function Detoxify blood Increase calcium absorption calcitriol Stimulate RBC production erythropoietin Regulate blood pressure and electrolyte balance renin. View Notes - PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ACUTE RENAL FAILURE 1.ppt from FHS 105 at Egerton University. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ACUTE RENAL FAILURE NEJM;2004;351:159-69 HARRISSON:1644 eMEDICINE.Jan.2005 DEFINATION The University of Tennessee Health Science Center (UTHSC

Acute Renal Failure Kidney Organ (Anatomy

PPT - ACUTE RENAL FAILURE PowerPoint presentation free

Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rapid loss of renal function due to damage to the kidneys. Acute renal failure is also known today as acute kidney injury (AKI). It is a problem seen in hospitalized patients and those in outpatient settings. A healthy adult eating a normal diet needs a minimum daily urine output of approximately 400 ml to excrete. Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in kidney function, as measured by glomerular filtration rate (GFR).[1][2][3] Although, immediately after a renal insult, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or creatinine levels may be within the normal range. The only sign of the acute kidney injury may be a decline in urine output

PPT - Renal Failure Acute and Chronic PowerPoint

  1. Renal Failure PowerPoint Template | SketchBubble. Home. Renal Failure. Renal Failure. 24 Downloads so far. (14 Editable Slides) Download this professionally designed Renal Failure PPT template and stun the audience. The template comes in two color themes
  2. antly acquired in hospitals.1 The condition develops in 5 percent of all hospitalized patients, and approximately 0.5 percent.
  3. Acute renal failure is associated with hypoperfusion to the kidney, parenchymal damage to the glomeruli or tubules, and obstruction at a point distal to the kidney. Chronic renal failure may be caused by systemic disease, hereditary lesions, medications, toxic agents, infections, and medications
  4. Treatment of acute renal failure. Acute renal failure is a life threatening illness whose mortality has remained high since the introduction of hemodialysis 25years ago, despite advances in supportive care. Acute renal failure is an extremely morbid and costly disorder with a significant proportion of patients progressing to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis
  5. Acute Renal Failure Cases . Case 1- HPI • 71 yo mw/ fever and dysuria for 2 days • Decreased UOP but increased frequency • Yesterday vomited 3-4 times and developed left flank pain • Naproxen partially relieved flank pain • This morning he felt no better and develope

Acute Renal Failure Cases ATN * * Case 1- HPI 71 yo mw/ fever and dysuria for 2 days Decreased UOP but increased frequency Yesterday vomited 3-4 times and developed left flank pain Naproxen partially relieved flank pain This morning he felt no better and developed dizziness upon standing so came to ED PMH HTN well controlled on lisinopril 20mg daily Last BMP 2 months ago with Creatinine 1.0 mg. Acute renal failure a/w myeloma: the evidence is now poor Plasma exchange when myeloma presents as acute renal failure: a randomized, controlled trial; Clark et al. 2005, 143:777-84 Hyperviscosity syndrome a/w myeloma is still an indication for TPE Indications: NonRenal Myesthenia gravis Acute and chronic demyelinating neuropathies Anti-NMDA. View acute renal failure.ppt from ANATOMY AN 2211 at University of the People. ACUTE RENAL FAILURE Pirouz Daeihagh, M.D. Internal medicine/Nephrology Wake Forest University School o Outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease referred late to nephrologists: a meta-analysis. Am J Med, 120 (12), 1063-1070. Fink, Jeffrey C. et al. Chronic Kidney Disease as an Under-Recognized Threat to Patient Safety. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 53.4 (2009): 681-688.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stages 1-5 Established or Advanced Kidney Disease (used to be called end-stage renal failure) Acute kidney injury (AKI) Can resolve in 6 weeks if the kidneys are going to recove Prerenal acute renal failure Acute on chronic renal failure Obstructive acute renal failure Glomerulonephritis (primary or secondary) Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis Vasculitis Other vascular acute renal failure Total Incidence (per million persons per year) 88 46 29 23 6.3 3.5 3.5 2.1 209 95% CI 79-97 40-52 24-34 19-27 4.8-8.3 1.7.

Acute renal failure

Acute R pyelonephritis in a patient with R kidney transplant: T86.13, Kidney transplant infection . N10, Acute pyelonephritis. Acute hypoxic respiratory failure in a patient s/p lung transplant: T86.811, Lung transplant failure. J96.01, Acute respiratory failure with hypoxia . Atrial fibrillation with RVR in a patient s/p heart transplan Reduction in Kidney function. Rise in serum creatinine (absolute increase of >0.3mg/dl or percentage increase of > 50%) Reduction in urine output (<0.5ml/kg/hr for >6hours) RIFLE criteria (prosposed by ADQI) for staging of AKI: Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End stage kidney disease. Rifle: 1st 3 are severity, 2nd 2 are outcom Evaluation of Kidney Function in the Acute Care Setting At present, GFR is the gold-standard marker for acute or chronic kidney disease, though it represents only one of many affected functions. However, GFR is almost never directly measured in the clinical setting, and sur-rogate markers of kidney function are typically used Acute renal failure is characterised by a rapid fall in glomerular filtration rate, clinically manifest as an abrupt and sustained rise in urea and creatinine. Life threatening consequences include volume overload, hyperkalaemia, and metabolic acidosis. Acute renal failure is both common and costly and carries a high morbidity and mortality. As it is often preventable, identification of.

ACUTE AND CHRONIC RENAL Failure Kidney Medicin

  1. ACUTE RENAL FAILURE: Early Clinical Manifestations (pages 392-394) Symptoms depend on degree and cause of renal failure (See Table 16-5) Initial Symptoms: Fatigue and malaise: Loss of excretory capacity and accumulation of water, electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes Prerenal azotemia: Elevated BUN/SrCr (20-30:1) with normal SrCr Urinalysis: No.
  2. ation in recent years. Traditionally, emphasis was given to the most severe acute reduction in kidney function, as manifested by severe azotaemia and often by oliguria or anuria
  3. Download MedicPresents's royalty free Renal Disease: Overview and Acute Renal Failure ppt slides and Renal Cell Carcinoma presentation slides,Latest ppt presentation
  4. Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate, and your blood's chemical makeup may get out of balance due to loss of electrolytes
  5. PowerPoint Presentations. Acid Base PPHYS. Acute Kidney Injury. Adequacy Goals of Peritoneal Dialysis and Evidence Behind. Alports Review PDW. BK Virus. Board review images. Chronic Kidney Disease in Elderly. Genetic Disorders of Renal Electrolyte Transport
  6. Presentation Title : Aki Acute Kidney Injury. Presentation Summary : UK Renal Association 5th Edition, 2011 . Acute kidney injury (AKI) has now replaced the term acute renal failure and an universal definition and staging system. Date added: 11-12-2020

Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease: an integrated clinical syndrome Lakhmir S. Chawla1,2 and Paul L. Kimmel2,3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia, USA; 2Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, George Washington Universit Introduction. Acute renal failure (ARF) is defined as an acute decline in renal function characterized by an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine values, often accompanied by hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and hypertension. Significant morbidity and mortality can accompany ARF. Patients who have ARF recover their renal. If your acute kidney failure is caused by a lack of fluids in your blood, your doctor may recommend intravenous (IV) fluids. In other cases, acute kidney failure may cause you to have too much fluid, leading to swelling in your arms and legs. In these cases, your doctor may recommend medications (diuretics) to cause your body to expel extra fluids Acute renal failure (ARF) is a frequent clinical condition in sick neonates. There is a wide variation in the incidence of ARF across studies. It affects approximately 1% to 24% of newborns in the NICU.1,2 In a recent report from a tertiary centre of Thailand, the prevalence of ARF among newborns.

Acute Kidney Failure Risk Factors. Most of the time, kidney failure happens along with another medical condition or event. If you fall into any of the following categories, you may have a greater. Hemolysis and acute kidney failure Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Oct;56(4):780-4. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.03.025. Epub 2010 Jun 3. Authors Qi Qian 1 , Karl A Nath, Yiming Wu, Tarek M Daoud, Sanjeev Sethi. Affiliation 1 Department of Medicine, Division of.

What does small or large kidney signify? Answer. 9. What is the significance of the report Both kidneys illustrate hyperechogenicity How does evaluation of echogencity help in the diagnosis? Answer. 10. What evidence in renal ultrasound, will suggest obstruction? Answer. 11. Is the cause of this patient's renal failure acute or chronic Acute kidney injury (AKI), formerly called acute renal failure (ARF), is commonly defined as an abrupt decline in renal function, clinically manifesting as a reversible acute increase in nitrogen waste products (measured by blood urea nitrogen [BUN] and serum creatinine levels) over the course of hours to weeks. Acute kidney injury is a common entity in the emergency department (ED) Nutritional Management of Acute Renal Failure Wilfred Druml, MD c The principles of nutritional therapy (ie, maintain lean body mass, stimulate immunocompetence, and repair functions, such as wound healing) are similar for patients with acute renal failure (ARF) and with other catabolic clinical conditions The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic. Most patients with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, but about 5% develop severe symptoms, which can include acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and multiple organ failure. Kidney involvement is frequent, with clinical presentation ranging from mild proteinuria to progressive acute kidney. Acute kidney injury, also called acute renal failure, is more commonly reversible than chronic kidney failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is usually caused by an event that leads to kidney malfunction, such as dehydration , blood loss from major surgery or injury, or the use of medicines

(PPT) ACUTE AND CHRONIC RENAL failure John Ahinche

  1. Acute renal insult is a relatively common disease, with an incidence of 2,000 to 3,000 per million inhabitants. Older people and toddlers are particularly susceptible, as they can dehydrate quickly when experiencing acute water loss (e.g., due to infections or heavy sweating)
  2. In Kidney Kitchen, you can take a deep dive into what each nutrient means for people with kidney disease, and how much of these nutrients common foods contain. Learn what healthy eating means for people in every stage of kidney disease, including those on dialysis or living with a kidney transplant
  3. Acute and chronic renal failure are the two kinds of kidney failure. When a patient needs renal replacement therapy, the condition is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This activity reviews the causes, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis of renal failure and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in its management
  4. Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously known as acute renal failure (ARF), is an acute decline in kidney function, leading to a rise in serum creatinine and/or a fall in urine output. Kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) Acute Kidney Injury Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury

Acute kidney failure - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

Acute Kidney Injury and CKD ppt. STUDY. PLAY. Azotemia. buildup of nitrogenous wastes in the blood. Uremia or uremic syndrome. elevated BUN/creatinine levels and clinical S/S of disease. Acute Kidney Injury. acute renal failure. Chronic renal insufficiency. years of reduced kidney function but not incompatible with life. Chronic kidney disease. - Renal failure (rather than chronic renal/kidney failure) - Diabetes with complications: Missing linkage or causal relationship for diabetic complication - Pneumonia - Status of breast, prostate, colorectal or other cancers coded as history of rather than active and treatment not documente Intrarenal Acute Kidney Failure. On the other hand, intrarenal acute kidney failure presents no pee-pee (urine output) because the fire is inside the kidneys affecting the structures within and mainly causing damaging effects to the kidneys. So, that's basically how you can easily distinguish prerenal from intrarenal acute kidney failure Pathophysiology. Chronic renal failure is caused by a progressive decline in all kidney functions, ending with terminal kidney damage. During this time, there is modulation and adaptation in the still-functional glomeruli, which keeps the kidneys functioning normally for as long as possible

https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudunganSupport me: http://www.patreon.com/armandoInstagram:http://instagram.com/armandohasudunganTwitter:https://twitter.c.. During the _____ phase of Acute Renal Failure, Oliguria develops and the kidneys cannot efficiently eliminate metabolic wastes, water, electrolytes, and acids. 9. _____ renal Failure is a rapid decline in renal function with an abrupt onset. 10. Which phase of Acute Renal Failure results in FVE and edema due to salt and water retention. The rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with patients hospitalized with Covid-19, and associated outcomes are not well understood. This study describes the presentation, risk factors and outcomes of AKI in patients hospitalized with Covid-19. We reviewed the health records for all patients

Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is most often a result of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). The clinical presentation is characterized by the development of dyspnea associated with the rapid accumulation of fluid within the lung's interstitial and/or alveolar spaces, which is the result of acutely elevated cardiac filling pressures [ 1 ] If chronic kidney disease progresses to end-stage renal disease , renal replacement therapy (i.e., dialysis or kidney transplantation) becomes necessary. Definition Chronic kidney disease is defined as an eGFR 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and/or persistence ≥ 3 months findings indicating irreversible kidney damage , such as Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is a sudden decrease in kidney function that develops within 7 days, as shown by an increase in serum creatinine or a decrease in urine output, or both.. Causes of AKI are classified as either prerenal (due to decreased blood flow to the kidney), intrinsic renal (due to damage to the kidney itself), or postrenal (due to. The effect of acute kidney injury and discharge creatinine level on mortality following cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(9):2069-74. Hall G, Esser E. Challenges of care of the patient with acute kidney injury. J Infus Nurs. 2008;31(3):150-6. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Acute Kidney Injury Work Group

Drug-Induced Acute Renal Failure


Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury often leads to acute kidney disease (AKD), predisposing patients to long-term complications such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), kidney failure with replacement therapy (KFRT), or mortality. Risk stratification of patients with AKD represents an opportunity to assist with prognostication of long-term kidney complications acute leukemia ppt symptoms in adults; leukemia ppt; acute leukemia ppt symptoms in children; acute leukemia ppt symptoms in elderly; acute leukemia ppt symptoms in women; acute leukemia ppt symptoms in dogs; acute leukemia ppt symptoms 2019; acute leukemia ppt symptoms 2020; Recent Search. existential crisis free will symptoms in women. Case - Acute Renal Failure • 73 yo diabetic F w hx of mild HBP but normal renal function develops infection of R foot. Over 1 week fever, chills, inflammation swelling of her R foot and leg . She takes Motrin for pain. For 4 d low urine output. Admitted to hosp with BP 82/60 T102 P88 Confused disoriented Cor -Chest wnl Ex ___% of all inpatients develop acute renal failure. Risk Factors: Chronic Kidney Disease. Heart failure. Liver disease. Cardiovascular disease (previous MI, stroke, PVD) Diabetes mellitus. Recent use of nephrotoxins, e.g. ____ *Patients with an acute presentation of chronic autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease and Budd-Chiari syndrome are considered as having ALF if they develop hepatic encephalopathy, despite the presence of a pre-existing liver disease in the context of appropriate abnormalities in liver blood tests and coagulation profile; †Usually INR >1.5 or.

Management of acute renal failure pp

The interactive elements in this module may not work properly in all browsers. For non-interactive offline training, download this module (PPT, 7.18 MB) Module 5 - The Transition from Chronic Kidney Disease to Kidney Failure Consider both the acute renal failure and Ms. Devak's placement in the intensive care unit. 3. Ms.Devak is at risk for respira tory distress related to potential fluid volume excess. How does her fractured femur further contribute to risk for respiratory distress? 4. Develop a care plan for Ms. Devak for the nursing diagnosis Failure Serum creatinine × 3, or serum creatinine ≥ 4 mg/dl with an acute rise > 0.5 mg/dl < 0.3 ml/kg/hour × 24 hours, or anuria × 12 hours Loss Persistent acute renal failure = complete loss of kidney function > 4 weeks End-stage kidney disease End-stage kidney disease > 3 month Unload the Stressed Kidney? 1.Acute renal failure = acute renal success 2.↓ in GFR (mediated by TGF) = ↓ reabsorptive work 1.Preserve renal O2 supply/demand + medullary oxygenation 2.Mitigate ischemic/hypoxic injury 3.If protective - why do we apply strategies to ↑ GFR? Thurau et al Am J Med 197 NICE: Acute kidney injury: Prevention, detection and management of acute kidney injury up to the point of renal replacement therapy. In: NICE clinical guideline 169. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2013. 3. Lewington A, Kanagasundaram S: Renal Association Clinical Practice Guidelines on acute kidney injury. Nephro

Acute Renal Failure Nursing Care and Management: Study Guid

60 CLINICAL JOURNAL OF ONCOLOGY NURSING SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 21, NUMBER 5 CJON.ONS.ORG S Myelosuppression, Bone Disease, and Acute Renal Failure Evidence-based recommendations for oncologic emergencies Kevin Brigle, PhD, NP, Amy Pierre, ANP-BC, Elizabeth Finley-Oliver, BSN, RN, OCN ®, Beth Faiman, PhD, MSN, APRN-BC, AOCN , Joseph D. Tariman, PhD, RN, ANP-BC, FAAN, Teresa Miceli, BSN, RN, OCN. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients Acute renal failure is abrupt deterioration in renal function, which is usually, but not invariably reversible over a period of days or weeks, and usually accompanied by a reduction in urine volume. In contrast; chronic renal failure is the clinical syndrome of the metabolic and systemic consequences of a gradual, substantial and irreversible. Even the definition of an acute decline in renal function is confusing and has been referred to by various names, such as acute renal failure, acute decline in GFR, acute kidney injury and.

Acute Kidney Injury - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshel

Case reports of acute kidney injury in patients taking the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists exenatide and liraglutide have been reported. We report 2 patients with chronic kidney disease due to diabetic kidney disease who experienced rapid worsening of kidney function and increased proteinuria after being prescribed the GLP-1 receptor agonist semaglutide Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in children admitted to hospital and existing serum and urine biomarkers are insensitive. There have been significant developments in stratifying the risk of AKI in children and also in the identification of new AKI biomarkers. Risk stratification coupled with a panel of AKI biomarkers will improve future detection of AKI, however, paediatric. This worksheet and quiz will allow you to test the following skills: Reading comprehension - ensure that you draw the most important information about what happens during acute renal failure. Pflueger A, Larson TS, Nath KA, et al. Role of adenosine in contrast media-induced acute renal failure in diabetes mellitus. Mayo Clin Proc 2000; 75:1275. Rudnick MR, Goldfarb S. Pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy: experimental and clinical observations with an emphasis on the role of osmolality

PPT - (AKI) Acute Kidney Injury PowerPoint Presentationprofessional nursing practice: CARDIORENAL SYNDROMENursing cribPPT - The Acute Abdomen PowerPoint Presentation, free

Renal Rehabilitation aims at improving Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients QOL. The nephrology community felt the need to catch up with cardiology and pulmonary colleagues by adding renal rehabilitation programs for patients with chronic medical conditions, as the benefits to those with CKD on physical function and QOL are many.. CKD is a worldwide public health problem As it will be further discussed, the working diagnostic hypotheses are of an acute renal failure superimposed on a chronic kidney disease in the context of diuretic abuse. In spite of the need for rapid correction of the potassium and sodium levels, each of the interventions has,. Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs in up to 30% of patients who undergo cardiac surgery, with dialysis being required in approximately 1% of all patients. The development of ARF is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality independent of all other factors. The pathogenesis of ARF involves multiple pathways. Hemodynamic, inflammatory, and nephrotoxic factors are involved and overlap.