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Baby x ray teeth

By allowing your child's dentist to take baby teeth x-rays, you are giving them the tools they need to better address, improve, and preserve your child's oral health. Dental x-rays for kids allow dentists to: See how many teeth are still inside the gums, what position they are in, and how large they are X-rays of kids' skulls as their baby teeth get pushed out and their permanent teeth grow in While somewhat gnarly, sure, but it's still rather fascinating to see what it looks like as permanent teeth form within the skull before pushing out baby teeth. Below, a time-lapse video of permanent teeth growing in: Posted by Tara McGinle In addition to cavities, x-rays allow us to detect an abscess (infection), cysts, tumors, extra and/or missing teeth, and other clues to overall dental development. In pediatric dentistry, we sometimes get the comment they're just baby teeth In their 2012 guidance, the American Dental Association and the Food and Drug Administration say that for high-risk preschoolers who have had cavities in their baby teeth, dentists should consider..

This X-ray image of baby skull teeth shows how the main teeth will soon repace the milk ones along with their roots. The kids would not even need a root canal to take them out because they will wither with their natural process The X-rays revealed that he possessed not one, not two, but three sets of front teeth. There were his baby teeth, his permanent teeth and in between, an extra set. A bonus pair, if you will. I.. Social media users have been sharing an image online that shows an x-ray of a skull with surplus teeth, alongside text that suggests this is what toddler x-ray scans look like. While the images are..

Baby Teeth X-Ray Safety Does Your Child Need Dental X

  1. What photo shows adult teeth hidden beneath? But let's look at an X-ray. Can you see the teeth beneath the gum on top and bottom? Here is a new born, see any teeth? Yet teeth start beginning to appear at certain intervals. Where do they come from?..
  2. This is a photo of a child's skull shown with adult teeth waiting to protrude and replace baby teeth. Close. 36.0k. Posted by u/[deleted] 2 years ago. Archived. This is a photo of a child's skull shown with adult teeth waiting to protrude and replace baby teeth. It never occurred to me until now that as a child or young adult the.
  3. In the worst-case scenario, a baby tooth is completely out of the dental socket. In this case a dental x-ray is recommended to ensure that the tooth is not pushed up into the bone (called an intrusion injury). We do not typically recommend re-implant of this tooth due to the possibility of damaging the developing permanent tooth
  4. A tooth can be driven into the jawbone by a fall or any impact on the tooth. This could damage the permanent tooth growing under it. If an x-ray confirms that the permanent tooth is at risk, the baby tooth will have to be extracted
Anatomy of your child’s jaw - Dentist in Brampton, ONX-rays of kids’ skulls as their baby teeth get pushed out

3. Occlusal X-rays. These are used to keep track of the development and general placement of an entire arch of teeth on your upper or lower jaw. They include x-rays such as a baby teeth x-ray used by our pediatric dentist to check for impacted teeth. 4. Panoramic X-rays. These x-rays are used to take detailed images of your entire oral cavity The AAPD has recommendations for when dental x-rays for a child patient might be needed, regardless of age. The recommendations are based on certain conditions, some of which are listed below: A history of dental caries, or cavities - Posterior bitewing x-rays every 6 to 12 months if the teeth can't be examined visually or with a probe The teeth (singular: tooth; collective term: dentition) can be both primary and secondary, with the eruption of permanent teeth occurring over a long period between the ages of 6 and 24 years.When an individual has a complete set of teeth, they are said to be dentate, if some are missing they are partially dentate.Complete absence of the teeth is termed edentulism, if only a few teeth are. This is important because it can help the dentist determine if baby teeth need to be pulled to prevent complications, such as adult teeth growing in behind baby teeth. Risks of dental X-rays Baby teeth: they serve a much more important role than you think. Sure, they'll all fall out or have to be pulled out at one point, but there is a need. Baby teeth start growing before birth and serve a huge role in our lives as we get older. Regardless of age, baby or adult, teeth help us chew and talk

X-rays of kids' skulls as their baby teeth get pushed out

  1. Photo about Dental X-Ray of child 6 years, all teeth in view. Image of medical, female, bone - 12269384
  2. Primary teeth have much thinner and shorter roots. This is something only a dentist can tell through taking an x-ray of the tooth. The short, thin roots enable the adult teeth to grow and maneuver into place so that they can dissolve the roots of the baby teeth and push through the gum line after the baby tooth falls out. Baby teeth fall out.
  3. Gabriel's picture/radiograph/x-ray of his molar teeth. Purpose is to check if there's any developing decay between his back teeth. This is a conventional den..
  4. al X-rays, which expose your belly — and your baby — to the direct X-ray beam
  5. Some children who may be at higher risk for dental problems (for example, those prone to baby bottle tooth decay or those with cleft lip/palate) should have X-rays taken earlier than others.

Dental X-Rays: The Whole Tooth - Pediatric Dental Blo

Do Kids Need Dental X-Rays? - The New York Time

X-ray of the teeth of a five-year-old child, the growth of permanent teeth in place of milk. X-ray of baby milk tooth-dentistry. X-ray of baby milk tooth - dentistry - children`s baby tooth Panoramic dental x-ray of child photo with milk teeth and first molar teeth. in doctor hand. selective focus Maintaining space for permanent teeth. Primary teeth hold space for permanent teeth developing underneath them in the jaw. This picture of an X-ray shows permanent teeth developing below primary teeth. If primary teeth are lost too early, other teeth move into the space and block the incoming permanent teeth. This can cause crowding Routine dental X-rays can also be postponed until after the baby is born, but this is not something we recommend. X-rays are critical to detecting dental issues that could become serious if they are not detected and treated Stage 1: 4-16 months - 8 front baby teeth (incisors) - The first teeth to erupt. 4-7 months old: The first baby teeth usually begin to break through (erupt) the gums at around 6 months old. This can occur anywhere between four and seven months. As a general rule, the first teeth to erupt are the two in the front bottom

If there is no permanent tooth there, then the baby tooth will likely remain. Premolars and lateral incisors seem to be the most common (and third molars too). Usually it's just one or two teeth that are missing. This x-ray shows Seven missing premolars! (bicuspids). I've seen more than that on some kids My 11 year old daughter has baby teeth (marked in a diagram labeled as teeth T and K) where an x-ray shows that there are no permanent teeth that have formed to take their place. She is seeing an orthodontist and is ready to have braces put on for a slight overbite. The orthodontist said we have two choices

If your child's baby teeth came in later than his peers, he may lose them later too. The middle teeth are usually the first to go (at 6 to 7 years), followed by the ones on either side (at 7 to 8 years). The molars can be lost any time after that but will likely fall out between 9 and 12 years. The bottom canines will probably fall out between. Dental X-rays. How is tooth decay treated in a child? Treatment will depend on your child's symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. In most cases, treatment requires removing the decayed part of the tooth and replacing it with a filling. Fillings are materials placed in teeth to repair damage. Clinical examination and X-ray are the main diagnostic methods for detecting ankylosis. Management and treatment The recommended management includes removing the ankylosed tooth to ensure development and eruption of the permanent teeth, and surgery to expose, protect, or reposition the emerging tooth By taking the x-ray, you prevent the worse harm, which is failing to catch a cavity and then losing the tooth. Safety Tips. Make sure the x-ray is digital, which has less radiation than conventional x-rays and if you are taking conventional, make sure it's an E-film, not a D-film

CLEIDOCRANIAL DYSPLASIA 2 | buyxraysonline

A panoramic dental x-ray captures a single image that shows your teeth, jawbones and surrounding facial structures. Dentists and oral surgeons use these x-rays to diagnose dental problems and plan treatments, especially for restorative dentistry like dental implants, or teeth straightening and orthodontic work.. Here you can discover how panoramic radiography works, what to expect from the. Dental x-rays fall short for caries in baby teeth By Melissa Busch, DrBicuspid.com associate editor. April 19, 2021-- Approximately one-third of caries diagnosed in preschool children using dental x-rays conflicted with assessments using oral exams alone in a new study published on March 31 in BMC Oral Health.. Carious lesions were diagnosed inaccurately in about 30% of baby tooth surfaces. Teeth that are present in a newborn's mouth are called natal teeth. Neonatal teeth, on the other hand, are teeth that come into your baby's mouth in the first 30 days of life. Sometimes natal teeth can be supernumerary, or extra teeth, but most of the time they are just regular baby teeth that have come in six months early As the adult tooth prepares to come in, it will dissolve the baby tooth root more and more over time. X-rays are necessary to answer this question. Calculating the size of the cavity. Most cavities we see on the X-ray or on our clinical exam have reached the inside layer of the tooth called dentin Baby Teeth XRay. Published March 6, 2020 at 500 × 334 in 5 Reasons Why Baby Teeth X-Ray Is Needed (Early Dental Health Risks

If a baby tooth is knocked loose (but not out) by injury or trauma, the recommendation to see your dentist right away still stands. In most cases, your dentist will want to do X-rays and may recommend a soft diet for a few days to allow the tooth to re-implant. In some cases, in particular with very young children, your dentist may recommend. Baby teeth fall out, so X-rays aren't often done. But your child's dentist may recommend X-rays to diagnose decay, depending on your child's age. X-rays are also used to see if the root of a jammed baby tooth may be affecting an adult tooth. In general, it is best that young children not have dental X-rays unless absolutely needed Normally, the permanent teeth develop just underneath the baby tooth. When the permanent teeth are ready to come in, they begin to dissolve out the baby tooth root, eventually causing the baby tooth to become loose. The goal is for the permanent tooth to occupy the exact same spot in the mouth as the baby tooth occupied Figure 1. This image is a panoramic x-ray of a child. There are numerous baby teeth present in the mouth with long roots, and directly under the baby teeth are the developing adult teeth. Figure 2. This x-ray image depicts a permanent tooth ready to erupt into the mouth. As the permanent tooth pushes its way into the mouth, it resorbs the root.

Orthodontics - ToothIQ

These Photos Of A Child's Skull Full Of Teeth Will

These digital x-rays expose kids to up to 90% less radiation than conventional dental x-rays. The small sensors go in your child's mouth. There are no uncomfortable bitewings and the dental assistant takes the x-ray right there and doesn't have to run out of the room When you're missing permanent teeth. The average human grows 20 baby teeth, which eventually fall out and are replaced with 32 permanent teeth. Permanent (adult) teeth include: eight incisors, four canines, eight premolars and 12 molars (including four wisdom teeth). Because many adults have had their wisdom teeth removed, it is common for many.

The boy with the extra set of teeth - NBC New

However, children with adequately spaced primary (baby) teeth and no cavities do not need any dental X-rays. Older children with a low propensity for cavities can go 18 months to three years. Baby Tooth Extractions: Overview. A baby tooth extraction, or pediatric tooth extraction, is the surgical removal of a primary tooth. Tooth extraction is typically necessary after a child's tooth becomes damaged due to an injury, disease, or severe tooth decay. This is one of the most common pediatric dentistry procedures for children April 27, 2004 -- Getting dental X-rays during pregnancy might increase the risk of delivering a low birth-weight baby, new research shows.. After adjusting for other possible causes of low birth. Because there are so many reasons for a missing permanent tooth, the best way for dentists like Drs. Rowland, Selecman, and Daniel to determine what is happening is a thorough set of dental x-rays. There are typically three options when a permanent tooth is missing: preserve the baby tooth; replace the missing tooth; orthodontically close the spac

Fact check: X-ray shows hyperdontia, not generic toddler

  1. e whether there is an infection or not and advise necessary treatment
  2. A dental X-ray is a picture of the inside of the teeth, bones, and tissues of the mouth. It can show tooth structure, cavities, wisdom teeth, bone loss, and other things that can't be seen by sight only. The following types of dental X-rays are commonly used. Each one gives a different view of the mouth, teeth, and surrounding area
  3. Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth that appear in addition to the regular number of teeth (32 in the average adult). They can appear in any area of the dental arch and can affect any dental organ.The opposite of hyperdontia is hypodontia, where there is a congenital lack of teeth, which is a condition seen more commonly than hyperdontia
  4. When Baby Teeth Leave the Nest. It's difficult to predict the lifespan of a baby tooth, since they're only supposed to do their job for about a decade, give or take a couple of years. That said, if a permanent tooth doesn't swoop in to take its place, a primary tooth may far outlast its life expectancy, or it could also just totally fail.

Are kid's adult teeth really hidden under their baby

In the X-ray above, the permanent canine is coming in sideways, colliding with the root of another tooth. Children who are getting their permanent teeth can have impacted teeth. A permanent tooth can be trapped in the gums if a baby tooth does not fall out on time or if something blocks the permanent tooth's path, such as a cyst Due to this failure, the baby teeth above them may be retained (haven't fallen out as expected). Extracting the mesiodens. The dentist may plan to only observe the child's situation until that point when more complete root formation (2/3rds to 3/4ths, as determined by x-rays) has occurred X-Rays, Pregnancy and You. Pregnancy is a time to take good care of yourself and your unborn child. Many things are especially important during pregnancy, such as eating right, cutting out. Dental Intra Oral X-Ray Film Positioning System Complete Kit FPS 3000 XCP-DS Type Positioner Holders (1 Set Multi-Color) 3.8 out of 5 stars 15 $24.40 $ 24 . 40 ($24.40/Count Occasionally, teeth are present at birth (natal teeth) or erupt within 30 days after birth (neonatal teeth). When x-rays are taken, 95% of natal teeth are primary incisors, and 5% are supernumerary teeth or extra teeth. Very sharp teeth that can cause tongue lacerations and very loose teeth that can be aspirated should be removed

Video: This is a photo of a child's skull shown with adult teeth

Baby Tooth Traum

The dentist or hygienist might also discuss the possible removal of your child's wisdom teeth (third molars) at the appropriate age, usually at age 16. Dental X-ray. A dental X-ray allows the dentist to see detailed images of specific sections of your child's mouth to help diagnose problems not visible during the dental exam This occurs about 2.5 to 6.9 percent of the time. It also happens more in females than in males. Other reasons for over-retained baby teeth are pathology, obstructions, misalignment of the permanent tooth underneath, trauma, infection and late eruption of the adult teeth. If adult teeth don't develop, the baby tooth's roots don't dissolve The short answer is. Yes! Dental X-rays are safe to have during pregnancy, but there are some other factors you may want to consider as you are planning your dental care during this time. The amount of radiation used in a dental X-ray is very low and, according to both the American Dental Association and the American Pregnancy Association. Browse 933 dental x ray stock photos and images available, or search for dentist or dental equipment to find more great stock photos and pictures. dental radiogram on screen - dental x ray stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. dental radiogram on tablet - dental x ray stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Browse 2,963 tooth xray stock photos and images available, or search for dentist or teeth to find more great stock photos and pictures. child's dental x-rays - tooth xray stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. photo of dentist showing patient x-ray - tooth xray stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images

Injury to Baby Teeth - Simplyteet

These goals are simple enough, but many parents aren't sure when to start brushing baby's teeth and gums, or how to teach a baby to brush teeth. 1. 0-6 Months When your baby is born, they don't have teeth, so there's no reason to use an actual toothbrush and toothpaste for cleaning a newborn's mouth X-ray: the dentist will take an x-ray to detect cavities in front teeth and check the extent of the damage. If cavities reached the tooth pulp, they may cause inflammation of the pulp, pain, and formation of dental abscess. Percussion test: the dentist will use the end of the mirror-handle to tap on the front teeth. Inflamed or infected teeth. X-rays of the inside of the mouth will also be taken to verify which teeth are permanent and which are deciduous, and whether baby teeth have permanent successors ready to replace them. Treatment The deciduous (baby) tooth should be surgically removed as soon as the permanent tooth has begun pushing through your dog's gums Baby tooth formation and eruption influence the development of the alveolar bone (jaw bones). The typical dental eruption of the baby toot... Pinterest. Today. Explore. When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Touch device users, explore by touch or with swipe gestures So now I need to haggle with these dentists over whether to get what I feel are too many x rays simply to get my teeth cleaned. I don't know why they can't devise a method where they can x ray an image of a full mouth of teeth with fewer X rays than 18, like getting the full mouth image with just 4 or 8 x rays, instead of 18 separate x rays

Dental X-Rays: The 4 Different Types and Their Us

Pediatric dentistry black baby teeth stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. Panoramic radiograph is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw. This is a focal plane tomography shows the maxilla and mandible of a child aged seven years. A panoramic radiograph is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw Dental X-rays are pictures of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues around them to help find problems with the teeth, mouth, and jaw. X-ray pictures can show cavities, hidden dental structures (such as wisdom teeth), and bone loss that cannot be seen during a visual examination. Dental X-rays may also be done as follow-up after dental treatments Cleidocranial dysostosis is a congenital condition, which means it is present from before birth. The condition affects girls and boys equally. People with cleidocranial dysostosis have a jaw and brow area that sticks out. The middle of their nose (nasal bridge) is wide. The collar bones may be missing or abnormally developed

Bitewing X-rays once per calendar year and full mouth X-rays once in any five-year period; Non-surgical services to treat gum disease; View U-M's Dental Plan options to see which best fits your family's oral health needs. Plan Ahead for 2021. Even if your baby is all gums today, chances are you'll see some teeth sprouting in 2021 Supernumerary teeth can appear anywhere in the mouth and are most often found among the permanent teeth. They can occur among baby teeth, but they tend to be harder to identify, as they often erupt normally, are shaped like other teeth, and are in correct alignment. A clinical examination by a dentist or an X-ray usually leads to the diagnosis Eruption Charts. Teeth vary in size, shape and their location in the jaws. These differences enable teeth to work together to help you chew, speak and smile. They also help give your face its shape and form. At birth people usually have 20 baby (primary) teeth, which start to come in (erupt) at about 6 months of age An x-ray will help determine whether the baby teeth are causing improper growth of the adult teeth, and in some cases, the effected baby teeth will be removed early to leave room for the adult teeth. This is one of the reasons why early orthodontic intervention can be extremely useful: The American Association of Orthodontists recommends. 12 Developmental alterations Number Size Shape Structure Developmental alterations Number Hypodontia Lack of development of one or more teeth Anodontia Total lack of tooth development Hyperdontia Development of an increased number of teeth Hypodontia Common dental anomaly 3.5%-8% (excluding third molars) Female predominance about 1.5:1 Uncommon in primary dentition (<1%

Should the pediatric dentist do x-rays on a 4 year old

Especially for little babies, teeth are paving the way through a baby's gum for the first time. Tooth buds form in a baby's gum in the womb, so they are still hidden away like in this picture. For more information on easing your baby's teething you can read our article here. 2 Year Skull With Teeth And you are saying that the tooth feels fine. Finally, there is some clear evidence on the x-ray that the root of the tooth is healthy. If you look at a clearly healthy tooth - for example, the canine tooth next to this one. There is a thin white line that goes all the way around the root of the tooth. This is called the lamina dura Deciduous teeth or primary teeth, also informally known as baby teeth, milk teeth, or temporary teeth, are the first set of teeth in the growth and development of humans and other diphyodonts, which include most mammals but not elephants, kangaroos, or manatees which are polyphyodonts.Deciduous teeth develop during the embryonic stage of development and erupt (break through the gums and become.

X-Rays and Unshielded Infants Raise Alarms - The New York

Doctors in India have extracted 232 teeth from the mouth of a 17-year-old boy in a seven-hour operation. Ashik Gavai was brought in with a swelling in his right jaw, Dr Sunanda Dhiware, head of. Not seeing your baby's first tooth at 12 months is quite normal as every baby develops at different pace. Generally speaking, the first tooth develops between 4 to 8 months. However, the teeth can also come as early as the baby is only 1 month, or until he/she reaches one-and-a-half years old. This is the normal range for teeth to appear Clean your baby's gums with a soft, damp cloth after meals, and continue the practice as teeth begin to emerge. Help your toddler brush his teeth twice a day, and begin daily flossing when two teeth touch. Take your child to the dentist for a check-up after the first tooth appears, but no later than the first birthday

Teeth Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia

  1. ations on the arms, legs, or chest do not expose your reproductive organs to the direct beam
  2. Most of the primary teeth (baby teeth) will have erupted by 33 months. Girls tend to have their teeth come in before boys. The following are general guidelines for the eruption of the baby teeth: The first tooth to erupt is usually a middle, front tooth on the lower jaw, known as the central incisor
  3. X-rays will also reveal the secrets inside the tooth. Root Canal Style Number 1: Pulpotomy Basic anatomy dictates that the pulp is located in a central space within the tooth called the pulp chamber, and branches through passageways called canals that extend into the tooth roots
  4. Pregnancy can lead to dental problems in some women, including gum disease and tooth decay. During pregnancy, hormones affect gums and teeth. Brushing teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste and visiting your dentist will help keep your teeth and gums as healthy as possible during pregnancy. Some dental problems can affect a developing baby
  5. Myth: Avoid x-rays no matter what during pregnancy. Fact: Dental x-rays are considered safe for pregnant women, however, are usually avoided unless necessary for diagnosis in certain situations.If you are having pain in your mouth, it is best to visit your dentist for an evaluation. That may mean taking an x-ray, but be assured a lead apron (usually two) with a thyroid collar will be placed on.
Do Kids Need Dental X-Rays? - The New York TimesPanoramic XRay - Digital Dentistry

Dental X-Rays: Purpose, Procedure, and Risk

  1. Impacted Tooth scenarios and codes are also included to acknowledge that these four codes exist for extraction procedures that differ from those that are commonly referred to as simple. ADA Guide to Extractions -Tooth & Remnants - Version 1 - June 01, 2019 - Page 2 of
  2. g in while the baby tooth is still in the mouth, we usually check to see how wiggly or loose the baby tooth is. We also check to see how much of the baby tooth's root has dissolved and how much space the child has in the mouth. Sometimes an X-ray is important in helping us deter
  3. Area of the body being X-rayed: In the hands of a trained technician, X-ray images of your arms, legs, head, teeth, or chest do not involve any risk to the baby in your belly. More concerning are X-rays of your lower torso, like the abdomen, pelvis, or lower back area, which are more likely to reach your baby
  4. A dental X-ray should be taken to assess the tooth or teeth. Surgical extraction involves cutting and pushing back the gums to expose the bone over the tooth roots, and carefully removing a small amount of bone to expose the roots
  5. ation(Fig4, opposite). Nordidthe xrays showenamel hypoplasiain the patient whose molars are seen in Fig. lc. Discussion Since an xray is a shadow image of an object through.
  6. Occlusal X-rays are bigger scans that display full tooth development and placement. Every X-ray shows the complete arch of the teeth in either the upper or lower jaw. Occlusal X-rays discover extra teeth, jaw fractures, a cleft palate, cysts, dental abscesses, or growths. They also find foreign objects lost in the mouth. 3
  7. e whether a tooth would have to be extracted. If you are unsure I would definitely seek a second opinion to help ease your
NEWBORN DISORDER 1 | BuyxraysonlineX Rays

Many people confuse retained and persistent, calling those extra baby teeth retained teeth, when they are actually persistent teeth. A primary tooth rarely exists without an accompanying secondary tooth, which can be seen visually, or on dental X-rays, but in these cases, retained teeth is appropriate What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography, also called panoramic x-ray, is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth in a single image, including the teeth, upper and lower jaws, surrounding structures and tissues.. The jaw is a curved structure similar to that of a horseshoe. However, the panoramic x-ray produces a flat image of the curved structure Indeed, x-rays are an important tool for monitoring the growth and development of children's teeth and jaws. Whereas other kinds of x-rays involve equipment being placed in the mouth, panoramic x-rays take place externally. For this reason, this is often the preferred method for baby and child teeth x-rays Dentists tell us that teeth and gum care should begin even before the first baby tooth appears. Why Healthy Baby Teeth Are Important. It's important to keep baby teeth clean and healthy because: Baby teeth hold spaces open for the permanent teeth to come in. Baby teeth help to: Form the shape of your child's face X-Ray; Dental: Baby Bottle Tooth Decay; Dental: Baby Bottle Tooth Decay . Early childhood caries, also known as, baby bottle tooth decay is the severe decay of the baby teeth of infants and young children. It is called baby bottle tooth decay, but frequent, long-lasting feedings, especially at night, can cause it, too Detection of tooth decay (cavity or caries) on a dental X-ray. When looking for cavities, a dentist looks for signs on the radiograph (x-ray) that indicate a change in the density of any tooth's enamel and/or dentin. Tooth decay is a region of tooth de-mineralization (region with reduced minerals). Sometimes it is even an outright hole or pit